Pulmonology Pulmonology
Pulmonol 2018;24:115-9 - Vol. 24 Num.2 DOI: 10.1016/j.rppnen.2017.11.003
Review
Tuberculosis, social determinants and co-morbidities (including HIV)
R. Duartea,b,c,, , , K. Lönnrothd,e, C. Carvalhof, F. Limaa, A.C.C. Carvalhog, M. Muñoz-Torricoh, R. Centisi
a Centro Hospitalar Vila Nova de Gaia/Espinho EPE, Departamento de Pneumologia, Vila Nova de Gaia, Portugal
b ISPUP-EPIUnit, Universidade do Porto, Porto, Portugal
c Departamento de Ciências da Saúde Pública e Forenses e Educação Médica, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade do Porto, Porto, Portugal
d Department of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden
e Centre for Epidemiology and Community Medicine, Stockholm County, Sweden
f Serviço de Doenças Infecciosas, Centro Hospitalar São João, Porto, Portugal
g Laboratory of Innovations in Therapies, Education and Bioproducts (LITEB), Oswaldo Cruz Institute (IOC), FioCruz, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
h Clínica de Tuberculosis, Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Respiratorias, Mexico
i WHO Collaborating Centre for TB and Lung Diseases, Maugeri Institute, IRCCS Tradate, Italy
Received 29 October 2017, Accepted 12 November 2017
Abstract

The risk of exposure, progression to active tuberculosis (TB) and then to cure is a process affected by several risk factors. Along with well known risk factors such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), use of immunosuppressive drugs and being of young age, emerging risk factors such socio-economic and behavioral aspects play a significant role in increasing the susceptibility to infection, and unsuccessful treatment outcomes. This paper summarizes the effects of these socio-economic determinants and co-morbidities (including HIV) on TB infection and disease.

Keywords
Tuberculosis, Socio-economic determinants, HIV, Poverty, Alcohol, Tobacco, Homeless, Malnutrition, Undernutrition, Overcrowding
Pulmonol 2018;24:115-9 - Vol. 24 Num.2 DOI: 10.1016/j.rppnen.2017.11.003
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